Урок 4: The Passive Voice — пассивный (страдательный) залог

  1. Read the text

How Towns Have Arisen

Most vil­lages and towns on the British Isles came into being because of their favourable sit­u­a­tion for trade. 

Rather more than a hun­dred years ago, a great change came over the land. Many machines were invent­ed about that time. Spin­ning and weav­ing, for exam­ple, which had pre­vi­ous­ly been done by hand, were done by machin­ery that were dri­ven by water or steam-power.
The work which usu­al­ly was done in the hous­es of the peo­ple began to be car­ried on in large mills or fac­to­ries, and work­ers found it con­ve­nient to live near them.
More and more fac­to­ries were built and men and women left the coun­try dis­tricts in great num­bers and crowd­ed into towns.
Since then the move­ment of peo­ple into towns has been going on until now. Eng­land is dot­ted with great cities.
All over Britain, and espe­cial­ly in those parts were the coal need­ed for pow­er is to be found, there are min­ing and man­u­fac­tur­ing areas, such as the Lan­cashire cot­ton dis­trict, the Black coun­ty of Mid­land, and oth­ers. A great many towns are found close togeth­er in those dis­tricts, and a great many peo­ple live with­in a small area, so that the pop­u­la­tion is very dense.

Vocab­u­lary:

Trade – торговля

Rather – скорее

Weav­ing – ткачество

Mill – мельница

Con­ve­nient — подходящий

Crowd — переполнять

Coun­ty – округ

Found – основать

With­in – в

Dense – плотный, густонаселенный

 

  1. Trans­late the text and retell it.
  2. Find Eng­lish equiv­a­lents in the text:

Большинство сел и городов на Британских островах. Более, чем сто лет назад. Фабрики были построены. Движение (переселение) людей в города. По всей Британии.

[atten­tion type=red]Remember![/attention]

The Pas­sive Voice in Eng­lish language:

Bill plants a flower – The flower is plant­ed by Bill.

Bill plant­ed a flower – The flower was plant­ed by Bill.

Passive Voice
Правила образования Pas­sive Voice в английском языке
  1. Do these sen­tences passive:

Exam­ple: Rebec­ca writes e‑mails.

E‑mails are writ­ten by Rebec­ca.

Jill res­cued four dogs.

The stu­dents hand­ed in their tests.

Sue learned the song.

John crashed into red jeep.

Amy for­got her keys.

We play baseball.

The mechan­ic didn’t repair the bro­ken car.

Alex put her bag on the floor.

The teacher did not open the door.

The boys lost the match.

They don’t speak Span­ish in this shop.

Dan asked Kevin a very inter­est­ing question.

Tom plant­ed the tree in the yard last month.

He gives her a present.

Grand­moth­er looks after children.

The wait­er brought Mary a big pizza.

Granny told us a very inter­est­ing story.

Some­body broke into our flat last Monday.

Tony didn’t send me an e‑mail.

Par­ents meet Chris at the bus station.

 

  1. Use the verbs in the Pas­sive Voice:
  2. I can’t pay the fare, because my purse … (steal).
  3. This irri­ga­tion project … (fin­ish).
  4. Sue … (dri­ve) to work by her hus­band every day.
  5. My car … (repair) by my friend.
  6. Are you going to make break­fast? No, it … (make) by my sister
  1. Open the brack­ets using the cor­rect form:

At the sta­tion they will (meet, be met) by a per­son from the trav­el bureau. 2. Susan will (meet, be met) them in the hall upstairs. 3. The porter will (bring, be brought) your lug­gage to your room. 4. Your lug­gage will (bring, be brought) up in the lift. 5. You may (leave, be left) your cap and coat in the cloak­room down­stairs. 6. They can (leave, be left) the key with the clerk down­stairs. 7. From the sta­tion they will (take, be tak­en) straight to the hotel. 8. Tomor­row she will (take, be tak­en) them to the Russ­ian Museum.

  1. Use the verbs in the Pas­sive Voice:

1.The rule explained by the pro­fes­sor at the last les­son (to under­stand) by all of us. 2. The song was so beau­ti­ful that it (to learn) by every­body. 3.I hope the invi­ta­tion (to accept) by every­body. 4. The let­ter (to post) in half an hour. 5. It seems to me that music (to hear) from the next room. 6. At the last con­test the first prize (to win) by our team. 7. The ques­tion (to set­tle) as soon as they arrived. 8. Your report must (to divide) into two chap­ters. 9. Soon he (to send) to a con­fer­ence. 10. The book (to dis­cuss) at the next con­fer­ence. 11. The essay must (to hand) in on Wednes­day. 12. Yes­ter­day he (to tell) to pre­pare a speech. 13. The arti­cle (to pub­lish) last week, if I am not mis­tak­en. 14. The lec­ture (to attend) by all of us yes­ter­day. 15. A car (to call) fif­teen min­utes ago, so we are expect­ing it any mo­ment. 16. The young man (to intro­duce) to me only a cou­ple of hours ago, but it seems to me that I’ve known him for years. 17. The mobile phone must (not to use) at the lesson.

  1. Trans­late the sen­tences using the Pas­sive Voice:

Письмо Биллу отправлено мной. Это здание было построено нашими мастерами. Комната декорирована моей мамой. Стол накрыт моей сестрой. Это платье было сшито моей двоюродной сестрой. Доклад был написан Джимом. Доклад был одобрен профессором. Этот рисунок нарисован моей младшей сестрой. Документы напечатаны секретарем. Моя машина была отремонтирована моим другом. Книги Оскара Уайльда читаемы во всем мире. Эта книга была написана давно. Письмо было написано Анной. Ужин съеден. Сок выпит. Книга была прочитана мной.

  1. Do these sen­tences passive:

 I bought pota­toes yes­ter­day. They sell milk in this shop. I trans­lated the whole text. He stole a lot of mon­ey from the shop. They fin­ished the work. By three o’clock the work­ers loaded the trucks. They broke the win­dow last week. He wrote this book in the 19th cen­tu­ry. They car­ried out a num­ber of impor­tant exper­i­ments in this lab­o­ra­to­ry. Liv­ing­stone explored Cen­tral Africa in the 19th cen­tu­ry. By the mid­dle of autumn we plant­ed all the trees. They for­got the sto­ry. Teach­ers usu­al­ly make cor­rec­tions in red ink.

  1. Make up your own sen­tences using the Pas­sive Voice.

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Nadejda
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